On the fourth day of the UN Climate Change Conference in Marrakech, Morocco, negotiations took place in contact groups and informal consultations under the Conference of the Parties (COP), the Subsidiary Body for Implementation, the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice, and the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Paris Agreement.
IISD’s video coverage of Day Four in Marrakech focuses on Young and Future Generations Day.
10 November 2016: On the fourth day of the UN Climate Change Conference in Marrakech, Morocco, negotiations took place in contact groups and informal consultations under the Conference of the Parties (COP), the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI), the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) and the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Paris Agreement (APA). The facilitative sharing of views (FSV) under the international consultation and analysis (ICA) process for developing country parties met under the SBI.
Under the COP, contact groups met on matters relating to finance, including on long-term climate finance, where parties began identifying elements for a draft decision, such as on: how to avoid a finance gap; access to and delivery of finance; Standing Committee on Finance (SCF) recommendations and work on loss and damage; and adaptation finance. Contact groups also discussed the report of the SCF and review of the SCF’s functions, the report of the Green Climate Fund (GCF) to the COP, the report of the Global Environment Fund (GEF) to the COP and the sixth review of the Financial Mechanism.
Under the SBI, contact groups and informal consultations discussed: development of modalities and procedures for the operation and use of a public registry referred to in Paris Agreement Article 7.12; administrative and financial matters; review of modalities and procedures for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM); terms of reference for the review and functions of the SCF; and matters relating to the least developed countries (LDCs), among other issues.
Under the SBSTA, parties discussed, in informal consultations: agriculture; the impact of the implementation of response measures, including priorities for the improved forum and work programme; and LULUCF, during which a non-paper was discussed that acknowledged that although the modalities for afforestation and reforestation could be, or are, technically applicable to certain revegetation activities, implementation of revegetation project activities in the remaining time of the second commitment period would be difficult.
During the APA contact group, parties: heard reports from informal consultation co-facilitators; discussed how to capture progress at this session; and consulted on further technical work. Informal consultations under the APA discussed: further matters related to the implementation of the Paris Agreement; matters relating to Paris Agreement Article 6 (voluntary cooperative approaches), including the mechanism established by Paris Agreement Article 6.4 to contribute to the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and support sustainable development.
Informal consultations also addressed: further guidance in relation to the adaptation communication, including as a component of Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs); modalities and procedures for the effective operation of the committee to facilitate implementation and promote compliance, during which delegates focused on the triggers for action by the committee, the committee’s relationship with existing arrangements and bodies, the participation of concerned parties and the way forward in the next year; and the global stocktake. [IISD RS Coverage of COP 22] [Webcast of the FSV]
During a side event on climate financing for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the context of NDCs, panelists: outlined the vital role of SMEs in NDC implementation; said NDC implementation should be mainstreamed, rather than operationalized plan-by-plan; and discussed small, localized funds to bring partners together to achieve innovation and secure financing through leveraging the equity that smaller enterprises can provide.
Panelists stressed that the Paris Agreement, combined with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), puts the world on a “reasonable” path towards a sustainable future, and efforts must be intensified to hold government accountable to the commitments they made.
During Young and Future Generations Day, an event on “intergenerational inquiry” brought youth delegates together from around the world to engage with key players in the intergovernmental climate change arena, and focused on role of youth in implementing the Paris Agreement. Panelists stressed: that the Paris Agreement, combined with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), puts the world on a “reasonable” path towards a sustainable future; efforts must be intensified to hold government accountable to the commitments they made; and youth involvement and initiatives in decision-making processes must be considered. [IISD RS summary of event]
Another event discussed ways for climate policy to address fossil fuel supply, and debated the implications of policies such as moratoria on new coal mines or removal of production subsidies. Oil Change International introduced a report, titled ‘The Sky’s the Limit,’ which recommends: commencing a managed decline in fossil fuel supply; rapidly expanding renewable energy; and immediately ceasing fossil fuel permits and concessions. Panelists called for production subsidy removal as part of a comprehensive climate action package.
An event on climate-induced displacement and climate migrants’ rights highlighted such displacement globally, focusing on countries most vulnerable to climate change. Panelists addressed: climate-induced migration and policy responses in South Asia; displacement in Africa, where sea-level rise and land grabs are driving forces of migration; the need to look at displacement in a more dynamic manner, promote mutual learning, and address legal and institutional challenges; and the need to mainstream human mobility issues in the UNFCCC agenda.
Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) and Wageningen University held an event on transparency under the Paris Agreement. Participants addressed: the role of sustainable land and forest management in meeting the Agreement’s targets, including how they can be monitored; the roles and responsibilities of different actors; enhanced transparency and independent monitoring in the land use sector; and the multilevel challenges within land governance.
During a US Center event on innovation off-grid technology and finance, the US Agency for International Development (USAID) and the African Development Bank (AfDB) reaffirmed their commitment to creating affordable pathways to energy in Africa, by signing a US$11 million commitment in support of the Sustainable Energy Fund for Africa. Panelists said off-grid renewable energy space is key to reducing emissions in the energy sector.
Another US Center event highlighted experiences in deploying technology solutions to improve energy productivity and efficiency and provide cleaner sources of electricity generation. Panelists underscored: that market structure and management systems must change dramatically to improve renewable energy supply; research collaborations between the US and China, such as the US/China Clean Energy Research Center and the US/China Energy Performance Group; and difficulties in raising capital for renewable energy in rural areas in developing countries. [IISD RS Coverage of US Center Events]
A Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) event on creating value from carbon dioxide (CO2) focused on sharing efforts, progress and perspectives regarding future market potential for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), transportation and conversion into alternative industrial uses, including chemicals, cement manufacturing, food and waste treatment.
Another event discussed building resilience and adaptation measures with co-mitigation benefits in the Red Sea and the Arabian Gulf. Panelists addressed: the potential to increase seafood supply via SMEs in Saudi Arabia; a storm water drainage strategy in Saudi Arabia; the energy intensity of water pumping, desalination, consumption and reuse; support for alternative livelihoods for vulnerable coastal communities in the region; the global conservation value of marine ecosystems for local communities in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden; and the vulnerability of coastal ecosystem in the Gulf of Aqaba. [IISD RS Coverage of GCC Events]
An event on improving service efficiency and resilience in urban areas of francophone countries to efficiently implement the Paris Agreement and NDCs explored ideas and lessons that lead to better planning in urban areas to increase resilience to climate change, decrease socioeconomic vulnerability, develop sustainable services for the poor and reduce emissions. [IISD RS Coverage of International Development Research Center (IDRC) Events]
On 9 November, private sector leaders convened for Business and Industry Day, and called on countries to implement their NDCs through domestic legislation so that private sector climate commitments can be quickly implemented. Thus far, 471 companies with over US$8 trillion in market capitalization have undertaken over 1000 commitments to climate action. Business and industry called on governments at COP 22 to: implement NDCs through domestic legislation and regulation to incentivize a rapid response from the private sector; drive towards net zero emissions by communicating long-term low-emissions development strategies; connect non-state action to an increase in ambition with every five-year NDC cycle, beginning in 2018; mobilize climate finance at scale from public and private sources; enact carbon pricing; and build climate-resilient economies and communities.
The Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP), in partnership with We Mean Business, published a report, ‘Out of the Starting Blocks: Tracking progress on corporate climate action,’ which shows that the majority of companies already have targets in place to reduce their emissions, but that current business plans fall short of what is required for business to deliver on global low-carbon goals.
Almost 200 companies have joined The ‘Science Based Targets’ initiative, with Walmart, the largest company by revenue and the largest private-sector employer in the world, announcing its target on 4 November, the same day that the Paris Agreement entered into force. In addition, 70 companies across 20 sectors from nearly 30 countries have aligned with the ‘Business Leadership Criteria on Carbon Pricing,’ a set of standards to help companies set, advocate and report on a carbon price. [UNFCCC News Story on Business and Industry Day] [Publication: Out of the Starting Blocks: Tracking Progress on Corporate Climate Action] [Science Based Targets Initiative] [Business Leadership Criteria on Carbon Pricing]
On 10 November, Cities and Human Settlements Day outlined the main actions that national governments can take in partnership with local governments to help achieve local goals as a contribution to the success of NDCs. Some of the highlights of the day included: a call for a city to offer to host an International Scientific Conference on Climate Change and Cities in 2018; a presentation of a new assessment tool to enable standardized qualitative reporting of adaptation commitments to the Global Covenant of Mayors; and delivery of the main results of a scoping report of the Cities Climate Finance Leadership Alliance on subnational and local finance. In addition, a Special Dialogue on Financing Urban Resilience took place and the Global Alliance for Buildings and Constructions launched a roadmap for buildings. [UNFCCC News Story on Cities and Human Settlements Day]
UN Environment, the Moroccan Ministry of Tourism, Michelin and the Moroccan non-profit Association Mawarid for Environment and Energy have designed a map of Marrakech for delegates and tourists alike, marking ‘green’ hotels, restaurants, spas and hammams that use natural local products. The ‘Green Passport’ also includes the city’s main attractions, and makes recommendations for carbon footprint reductions through cycling, riding buses or walking. The Green Passport, which has been used at major events and tourist destinations since 2008, aims to support cities to educate and inform tourists to help them reduce their carbon footprint. [UN Environment News Story] [Green Passport Website] [Green Map of Marrakech]
Adaptation Fund Board Chair Naresh Sharma addressed delegates during the CMP plenary on 9 November on the work of the Fund, noting that it has a project pipeline totaling US$200 million. He said that 25 accredited national implementing entities are under Direct Access, which enables developing countries to build their own capacity to adapt to climate change by accessing finance and designing projects directly through the entities. Sharma said the number of approved adaptation projects in vulnerable communities has increased to 55, benefiting more than 3.7 million people in 48 countries, and said the Fund has set a US$80 million resource mobilization target through the end of 2016. He underscored that the Fund’s roadmap to participating in the Paris Agreement is crucial, welcomed ongoing discussions on a process for the Fund to serve the Paris Agreement, and expressed hope that countries would support this process and complete the roadmap. [Statement of Adaptation Fund Board Chair]
A side event on innovations and African collaborative approaches for transformative climate policy solutions argued that an African development pathway that could propel climate-resilient economic growth is possible if an enabling environment that promotes innovation and collaborative actions for climate change solutions is put in place. [UN Economic Commission for Africa News Story]
IISD’s video coverage of Day Four in Marrakech focuses on Young and Future Generations Day. [ENV 10 November]
IISD Reporting Services is producing the ENB and ENV on a daily basis from COP 22, along with ENB on the side (ENBOTS), and coverage of several special Days and other events. [IISD RS Coverage of COP 22]