Over the past few weeks, the UNFCCC Secretariat released reports on the individual review of the annual submissions, and reports on the review of the reports to facilitate the calculation of the assigned amounts for the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol of Denmark, New Zealand and Slovenia.
It also issued its latest report on Ukraine’s compliance with its obligations under the first commitment period.
Additionally, the Secretariat published a technical report covering the technical analysis of the technical annex on reducing emissions from deforestation submitted by Ecuador in its first Biennial Update Report.
22 August 2017: Over the past few weeks, the UNFCCC Secretariat released five reports on the individual review of the annual submissions by developed country Parties to the Kyoto Protocol submitted in 2015 and/or 2016, as well as three reports on the review of the reports to facilitate the calculation of the assigned amounts for the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol (CP2). In addition, the Secretariat published the results of the individual review of Ukraine’s resubmitted report following the expiration of the true-up period for the Kyoto Protocol’s first commitment period (CP1), and a report on the technical analysis of the technical annex to Ecuador’s first Biennial Update Report (BUR1).
A transparency and compliance regime is vital for building international trust and confidence that action to address climate change is taking place, as well as for assessing how to facilitate further action. Progress achieved under the UNFCCC and the subsequent decisions and agreements adopted by Parties is also relevant to Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 13 (climate action).
The transparency framework developed under the UNFCCC is intended to increase the international understanding of mitigation, adaptation and other actions towards fulfilling commitments outlined in the Convention and related decisions or agreements. The transparency framework takes the form of national reporting through National Communications (NCs) from all Parties, BURs from non-Annex I (developing country) Parties, as well as Biennial Reports (BRs) and annual greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory submissions from Annex I (developed country) Parties.
Secretariat Releases Five Reports on Individual Review of Submissions by Kyoto Protocol Parties
Under the UNFCCC transparency framework, each Annex I Party must submit an annual GHG inventory covering emissions and removals of GHG emissions for all years from the base year or period to two years before the inventory due date. Annex I Parties that are Parties to the Kyoto Protocol are also required to report supplementary information required under Article 7(1) of the Kyoto Protocol, with the inventory submission due under the Convention.
The Secretariat has issued reports on the individual review of the annual submissions of: Denmark submitted in 2015 (FCCC/ARR/2015/DNK) and 2016 (FCCC/ARR/2016/DNK); New Zealand submitted in 2016 (FCCC/ARR/2016/NZL); and Slovenia submitted in 2015 (FCCC/ARR/2015/SVN) and 2016 (FCCC/ARR/2016/SVN). [Report of Individual Review of Annual Submission of New Zealand 2016, Denmark 2015, Denmark 2016, Slovenia 2015 and Slovenia 2016]
Reviews of Reports to Facilitate Calculation of Assigned Amounts for CP2 Published
The Secretariat has published reports on the review of the reports to facilitate the calculation of the assigned amounts for CP2 of Denmark (FCCC/IRR/2016/DNK), New Zealand (FCCC/IRR/2016/NZL) and Slovenia (FCCC/IRR/2016/SVN).
Each Party with a quantified emission limitation or reduction commitment inscribed in the third column of Annex B to the Kyoto Protocol is required to submit to the Secretariat a report to facilitate the calculation of the assigned amount for CP2. The reports to facilitate the calculation of the assigned amounts are subject to review carried out by expert review teams (ERTs) in accordance with the ‘Guidelines for review under Article 8 of the Kyoto Protocol.’ [Reports on Review of Reports to Facilitate Calculation of Assigned Amount for the CP2 of Denmark, New Zealand and Slovenia]
Individual Review of Ukraine’s Resubmitted True-Up Period Report Published
The Secretariat has also published a report on Ukraine’s compliance with its obligations under the first commitment period (CP1) of the Kyoto Protocol, presenting the results of the individual review by an ERT of the country’s resubmitted true-up period report submission (FCCC/KP/CMP/2017/TPR/UKR).
The true-up period report, prepared individually for each Annex B Party, aims to facilitate the assessment of whether its CP1 aggregate anthropogenic GHG emissions exceed the quantities of Kyoto Protocol units valid for that period in the retirement account of that Party.
Under the Kyoto Protocol, each Annex B Party shall submit to the Secretariat, prior to 2 January 2016, a report upon expiration of the true-up period. The true-up period report, prepared individually for each Annex B Party, aims to facilitate the assessment of whether its CP1 aggregate anthropogenic GHG emissions exceed the quantities of Kyoto Protocol units valid for that period in the retirement account of that Party.
An ERT conducted the individual review of Ukraine’s initial true-up period report in 2016. The Compliance Committee subsequently considered two questions of implementation contained in the review report. The Enforcement Branch (EB) of the Committee concluded that Ukraine was not in compliance with the reporting requirements, but could not determine whether the Party was not in compliance with its commitment under Kyoto Protocol Article 3(1) (Annex I Parties’ commitment to ensure that their aggregate anthropogenic GHG emissions do not exceed their assigned amounts, with a view to reducing their overall emissions of such gases by at least 5% below 1990 levels). On the basis of a recommendation from the Compliance Committee, the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP), at its 12th session, encouraged Ukraine to formally demonstrate compliance with its commitment under Article 3(1) by CMP 13, scheduled to take place in November 2017. [Report on the Individual Review of the Resubmitted Report upon Expiration of the CP1 True-up Period of Ukraine] [SDG Knowledge Hub Transparency and Compliance Update on Ukraine and the Enforcement Branch] [SDG Knowledge Hub Transparency and Compliance Update on Ukraine’s Compliance]
Report Analyzing Ecuador’s BUR1 Technical Annex Issued
One of the key elements of the UNFCCC transparency regime is the International Consultation and Analysis (ICA) process for non-Annex I Parties that examines BURs through a technical analysis by a team of technical experts (TTE) and a facilitative sharing of views (FSV).
The Secretariat issued a technical report covering the technical analysis of the technical annex submitted on a voluntary basis by Ecuador in its BUR1. The technical annex covers data and information on the activity “reducing emissions from deforestation” and the same national territorial forest area as the assessed forest reference emission level proposed by Ecuador in its earlier submission. Ecuador reported the results of that activity for 2009-2014, amounting to emission reductions of 28,990,071 tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2eq). The technical analysis concludes that the data and information provided by Ecuador in the technical annex are transparent and consistent over time and with the assessed forest reference emission level. [Technical Report on the Technical Analysis of the Technical Annex to Ecuador’s BUR1]