The UNFCCC Secretariat has reported that Bahrain, Cuba, the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), Kuwait, South Sudan and Yemen have formally submitted their intended nationally determined contributions (INDCs), bringing the total number of Parties that have made their submissions to 177.
24 November 2015: The UNFCCC Secretariat has reported that Bahrain, Cuba, the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), Kuwait, South Sudan and Yemen have formally submitted their intended nationally determined contributions (INDCs), bringing the total number of Parties that have made their submissions to 177.
Bahrain’s INDC was submitted on 24 November 2015, and is in line with its Economic Vision 2030, which focuses on diversifying the economy. The Party notes the mitigation co-benefits that will be obtained from carrying out economic diversification activities to lessen its dependence on oil and gas and shift toward the financial, manufacturing and tourism sectors. On strategies, plans and actions that will contribute to low-carbon development, Bahrain lists carbon capture and storage (CCS), renewable energy, and a number of energy efficiency initiatives, including for: public, residential and commercial buildings; the petroleum and gas companies; flare projects; motor vehicles; lighting; aviation and other transportation; and communication. It also notes adaptation efforts focused on sea-level rise, water scarcity and food security, as well as those with mitigation co-benefits in water conservation, sustainable urban planning and blue carbon.
Cuba’s contribution, dated 23 November 2015, focuses on the energy and agricultural sectors, and principally on the following gases: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O). Noting the potential for renewables in the country, the INDC presents plans to construct installation of 2,144 megawatts (MW) of power to be connected to the national grid, including 755 MW from sugarcane and forest biomass, 633 MW from wind farms, 700 MW from photovoltaic, and 74 small hydroelectric plants. The Party estimates that implementing these projects will require more than US$4 billion. Other projects presented in the INDC are the installation of solar heaters in the residential and industrial sectors, use of solar pumps in the farming sector, production of biogas from organic waste, and replacing chemical fertilizers with biofertilizers. On energy efficiency, the country plans to switch out light-emitting diode (LED) lamps, distributing 13 million lamps in the residential sector and 250,000 for street lighting, and to substitute two million electrical resistance stoves with induction technology. The contribution also describes Cuba’s efforts in the realm of adaptation.
FSM’s 24 November 2015 submission contains a commitment to unconditionally reduce by 2025 its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 28% relative to the year 2000. Furthermore, subject to the availability of additional financial, technical and capacity building support from the international community, FSM puts forward a conditional commitment of an additional reduction of up to 35% by 2025 below emissions in the 2000 base year. FSM’s contribution targets CO2 emissions in the energy sector, especially electricity and transport. FSM notes that it does not intend to use international market mechanisms to achieve its targets. While the submission notes the importance of adaptation to the country and that it be treated effectively in the 2015 agreement, the Party notes that it does not see the INDC as a vehicle for addressing adaptation.
Kuwait made its submission, which is currently only available in Arabic, on 24 November 2015.
Submitted on 23 November 2015, South Sudan’s INDC includes a commitment to undertake a national GHG inventory as part of its initial National Communication in 2016 to allow better assessment of potential for mitigation. The submission lists the actions and policies the country aims to implement in the energy generation and energy use, reforestation and deforestation, and transport sectors. The actions identified include: increasing the use of clean energy; boosting the efficiency of biomass use and electricity usage; declaring approximately 20% of its natural forests as reserve forests; planting 20 million trees over a period of ten years; establishing emissions standards for vehicles; and establishing facilities to test the exhaust of vehicles. The INDC also describes priority adaptation actions for agriculture and livestock, vulnerable communities, forests, biodiversity and ecosystems, infrastructure, and institutions and policies. The Party also provides a summary of its needs.
The INDC from Yemen, submitted on 23 November 2015, proposes a 14% GHG emission reduction target by 2030 below business-as-usual (BAU), which consists of a 1% unconditional target and a 13% conditional target. The conditional target is contingent upon “access to new sources of finance and enhanced support, compared to that received over the past years, to be mobilized through new climate finance mechanisms, such as the Green Climate Fund” (GCF). The INDC notes that “detailed cost estimation of required financial support will be updated in light of future circumstances by 2020.” The contribution covers CO2, CH4 and N2O and targets the energy, agriculture and waste sectors. The unconditional mitigation measures are energy projects already under implementation, while the conditional measures focus on a variety of energy efficiency and renewable energy in the target sectors. The document also includes provisional adaptation measure that require international support.
All Parties to the UNFCCC are expected to submit INDCs in advance of the Paris Climate Change Conference, which will take place from 30 November – 11 December 2015. At the Conference, Parties are anticipated to agree on a global climate change agreement to take effect in 2020. [UNFCCC Press Release, Bahrain] [Bahrain’s INDC] [UNFCCC Press Release, Cuba] [Cuba’s INDC (in Spanish)] [UNFCCC Press Release, FSM] [FSM’s INDC] [UNFCCC Press Release, Kuwait] [Kuwait’s INDC] [UNFCCC Press Release, South Sudan] [South Sudan’s INDC] [UNFCCC Press Release, Yemen] [Yemen’s INDC] [UNFCCC INDC Portal]