The UNFCCC Secretariat has reported that Vanuatu, Armenia, Cabo Verde, Kyrgyzstan and Viet Nam have formally submitted their intended nationally determined contributions (INDCs).
All the INDCs outline the countries' intended mitigation contributions, as well as their adaptation priorities, needs and efforts.
29 September 2015: The UNFCCC Secretariat has reported that Vanuatu, Armenia, Cabo Verde, Kyrgyzstan and Viet Nam have formally submitted their intended nationally determined contributions (INDCs). All the INDCs outline the countries’ intended mitigation contributions, as well as their adaptation priorities, needs and efforts.
In its INDC, Vanuatu indicates that its main intended mitigation contribution is to achieve the outcomes and targets under the country’s National Energy Road Map (NERM) and Second National Communication (SNC) extended to 2030. Specifically it has a target of transitioning to close to 100% renewable energy in the electricity sector by 2030, which would reduce its business-as-usual (BAU) emissions in the energy sector as a whole by 30%. The INDC clarifies that this target is conditional on the receipt of financial and technical support.
Other intended mitigation measures include a programme of energy efficiency to reduce emissions in all sectors except agriculture and forestry by 15%. Agriculture and forestry sector emissions will be addressed using other mechanisms, such as cooperative programmes with other countries (agriculture) and REDD+ (forestry). The main greenhouse gas (GHG) covered is carbon dioxide (CO2) and the main sector is the electricity generation sub-sector.
Armenia’s INDC sets out the country’s intended target of achieving ecosystem neutral GHG emissions by 2050, to be accomplished with the support of international financial, technological and capacity building assistance. The mitigation contribution covers the energy, transport, urban development, industrial processes, waste management, and land-use and forestry sectors. It also covers the following gases: CO2, methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N20) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs).
The INDC also outlines some of the measures intended to be implemented to achieve the contribution, such as: striving for 20.1% forest cover; and ensuring organic carbon conservation, accumulation and storage in all land categories.
Cabo Verde’s INDC outlines renewable energy and energy efficiency targets, and other Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs). Its renewable energy commitment is to: achieve 100% grid access by 2017 and 30% renewable energy penetration into the electric grid by 2025, through unconditional unilateral efforts; and with international support, to increase the renewable energy uptake in electricity to 100% by 2025. Its energy efficiency target is to reduce overall energy demand by 10% in relation to the Base Scenario by 2030, unilaterally; and with international support, to reduce overall energy demand by 20% in relation to the Base Scenario by 2030.
Its other NAMAs relate to energy efficiency in the transport sector, new afforestation/reforestation campaigns, proper waste management coverage for at least 50% of the more vulnerable municipalities by 2030, as well as adaptation contributions. The INDC focuses on the energy, transport, waste, and agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU) sectors. It also cover the following gases: CO2, CH4 and N2O.
The submission from Kyrgyzstan outlines the country’s intended contribution of 11.49-13.75% GHG emission reductions below BAU by 2030; and with international support, a possible target of 29-30.89% reductions below BAU by 2030. Its 2050 target is to reduce GHG emissions by 12.67-15.69% below BAU by 2050; and with international support, by 35.06-36.75% below BAU by 2050. The country’s intended mitigation measures will focus on the following sectors: energy; industrial processes; agriculture; land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF); and waste. It will cover the following gases: CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and nitrogen trifluoride (NF3).
In its INDC, Viet Nam sets out its unconditional intended contribution of reducing its GHG emissions by 8% below BAU by 2030, comprising the following targets: reduction in emission intensity per unit of GDP by 20% below 2010 levels; and 45% increase in forest cover. The INDC also outlines that with international support, the 8% intended contribution could be increased to 25%, with emission intensity per unit of GDP reduced by 30% below 2010 levels.
The planned efforts to achieve these contributions are set out in the INDC and include: improving the effectiveness and efficiency of energy use; changing the fuel structure in industry and transportation towards less reliance on fossil fuels and increased use of renewable and low GHG emitting energy sources; and implementing sustainable agriculture measures. The INDC focuses on the entire economy including the energy, agriculture, LULUCF and waste sectors; and the following gases: CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6.
All Parties to the UNFCCC are expected to submit INDCs in advance of the Paris Climate Change Conference, which will take place in November-December 2015. Those submitted by 1 October 2015 will be included in a synthesis report on their aggregate effect by 1 November 2015. Parties are anticipated to agree on a global climate change agreement to take effect in 2020 at the Paris Climate Change Conference. [UNFCCC Press Release, Vanuatu] [Vanuatu’s INDC] [UNFCCC Press Release, Armenia] [Armenia’s INDC] [UNFCCC Press Release, Cabo Verde] [Cabo Verde’s INDC] [UNFCCC Press Release, Kyrgyzstan] [Kyrgyzstan’s INDC] [UNFCCC Press Release, Viet Nam] [Viet Nam’s INDC]