The UNFCCC Secretariat has reported that San Marino, Samoa, the Philippines, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Thailand, Argentina, Mozambique, India, Belize, Botswana and Sierra Leone have formally submitted their intended nationally determined contributions (INDCs), bringing the total number of Parties to have done so to 148.
1 October 2015: The UNFCCC Secretariat has reported that San Marino, Samoa, the Philippines, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Thailand, Argentina, Mozambique, India, Belize, Botswana and Sierra Leone have formally submitted their intended nationally determined contributions (INDCs), bringing the total number of Parties to have done so to 148.
In its INDC, San Marino commits to reducing its greenhouse (GHG) emissions to 20% below 2005 levels by 2030. The INDC states that the country intends to achieve this goal exclusively using domestic measures, with the possibility of using international mechanisms if domestic measures prove insufficient. The INDC covers carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) and nitrogen trifluoride (NF3). It also covers the following sectors: energy; industrial processes and product use; agriculture; land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF); and waste.
In its INDC, Samoa explains that it is targeting the energy sector, specifically the electricity sub-sector. The INDC sets out the goal of generating 100% of its electricity from renewable energy sources by 2025, up from 26% in 2014. Samoa’s commitment is conditional on the country achieving this goal in 2017 and receiving international assistance to maintain this achievement through to 2025. The main GHG included in the INDC is CO2. The INDC specifies that further economy-wide reductions are conditional on international support.
The submission from the Philippines sets out the country’s intended contribution of reducing its GHG emissions by about 70% by 2030 relative to its 2000-2030 business-as-usual (BAU) scenario. These emission reductions are intended to be achieved in the energy, transport, waste, forestry and industry sectors. The INDC also sets out the country’s adaptation priorities, including: development of climate and disaster-resilient ecosystem(s); and systematic transition to a climate and disaster-resilient social and economic growth.
In its INDC, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic sets out the country’s intention to achieve the following targets: increase forest cover to 70% of land area (i.e. to 16.58 million hectares) by 2020; increase the share of renewable energy to 30% of energy consumption by 2025; increase the share of biofuels to meet 10% of the demand for transport fuels by 2025; provide electricity to 90% of households in the rural area by 2020; develop the road network and increase the use of public transport; expand the use of large-scale hydroelectricity; and implement climate change action plans. The INDC also outlines some of the country’s intended adaptation projects and programmes.
The submission from Thailand outlines the country’s intended target of reducing its GHG emissions by 20% from the projected BAU level by 2030. It further states that this level of contribution could increase to 25%, subject to adequate and enhanced access to technology development and transfer, financial resources and capacity building support. The INDC is economy-wide and includes the following GHGs: CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6.
In its INDC, Argentina sets out its unconditional intended contribution of reducing its GHG emissions by 15% in 2030 with respect to projected BAU emissions for that year. The INDC explains that this goal will be achieved through, among other things, sustainable forest management (SFM), energy efficiency, transport modal, and the use of biofuels, nuclear power and renewable energy. The INDC also outlines that conditional on the receipt of international support, Argentina can increase its intended contribution to a 30% reduction below 2030 BAU levels by 2030. It explains that this goal envisages increasing the scope of measures in progress and implementing new measures. The INDC covers the energy, agriculture, waste, industrial processes and LULUCF sectors, as well as the following gases: СО2, СН4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6.
The submission from Mozambique explains that the country intends to make its mitigation contribution by implementing specific policies and programmes, including the country’s: National Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Strategy; Energy Strategy; Conservation and Sustainable Use of the Energy from Biomass Energy Strategy; Master Plan for Natural Gas; Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariff Regulation; Integrated Urban Solid Waste Management Strategy; and National REDD+ Strategy. The INDC outlines that these policies, programmes and projects will achieve total GHG emission reductions of about 76.5 MtCO2eq between 2020 and 2030, 23 MtCO2eq by 2024, and 53.4 MtCO2eq from 2025 to 2030. It notes that these reductions are estimates and will be updated by early 2018. Mozambique further indicates that the implementation of any proposed reduction is conditional on the provision of financial, technological and capacity building from the international community. Noting the country’s extreme vulnerability to climate change impacts, the INDC also sets out the country’s adaptation needs.
India’s INDC outlines the country’s goal of reducing overall emission intensity and improving energy efficiency of its economy over time, while protecting the vulnerable sectors of the economy and segments of society, by, inter alia: reducing the emissions intensity of its GDP by 33%-35% below 2005 levels by 2030; achieving about 40% cumulative electric power installed capacity from non-fossil fuel-based energy resources by 2030, with the help of technology transfer and low-cost international finance; and creating an additional carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of CO2 equivalent through additional forest and tree cover by 2030.
Belize’s INDC sets out the country’s intended contribution of: developing a REDD+ strategy; addressing the management and protection of key biodiversity areas that will support forest protection and SFM plans and practices in targeted Protected Areas; achieving at least 20% reduction in conventional transportation fuel use by 2033 and promoting energy efficiency in the transport sector through appropriate policies and investments; implementing the country’s Sustainable Energy Action Plan and reducing its GHG emissions by 24 million metric tonnes of CO2e over the period 2014-2033; increasing the share of renewable energy in its electricity mix by 85% by 2027 and thereby reducing CO2 emissions by 62% below BAU; and developing and implementing a country-wide integrated solid waste management programme. The main gas included in the INDC is CO2, and the sectors covered are energy and LULUCF.
Botswana’s INDC sets out the country’s intended contribution of achieving an overall emission reduction of 15% below 2010 levels by 2030. It explains that this goal will be achieved domestically through relevant strategies and measures, in the energy (mobile and stationary), waste and agriculture sectors. The INDC further outlines that the country will also continuously implement mitigation measures for the livestock sector to reduce CH4 emissions, but that these initiatives are not estimated in the 15% emission reduction goal. The gases covered in the INDC are CO2, CH4 and N2O. The INDC also sets out Botswana’s adaptation priorities.
In it submission, Sierra Leone sets out the activities that the country is already undertaking to mitigate climate change. The INDC then outlines the country’s conditional target of maintaining its emission levels relatively low (close to the world average of 7.58 MtCO2e) by 2035 or neutral by 2050, to be achieved by reducing the country’s carbon footprint and following green growth pathways in all economic sectors. The INDC explains that this target is conditional on the country receiving international support in the form of finance, investment, technology development and transfer, and capacity building. It further outlines that as its long-term global contribution, Sierra Leone intends to present an intensity-based reduction target of 25%-35% below 1990 levels, to be achieved in phases up to 2050.
All Parties to the UNFCCC are expected to submit INDCs in advance of the Paris Climate Change Conference, which will take place in November-December 2015. Those submitted by 1 October 2015 will be included in a synthesis report on their aggregate effect by 1 November 2015. Parties are anticipated to agree on a global climate change agreement to take effect in 2020 at the Paris Climate Change Conference. [UNFCCC Press Release, San Marino] [San Marino’s INDC] [UNFCCC Press Release, Samoa] [UNFCCC Press Release, the Philippines] [INDC of the Philippines] [UNFCCC Press Release, Lao People’s Democractic Republic] [INDC of Lao People’s Democratic Republic] [UNFCCC Press Release, Thailand] [Thailand’s INDC] [UNFCCC Press Release, Argentina] [Argentina’s INDC] [UNFCCC Press Release, Mozambique] [Mozambique’s INDC] [UNFCCC Press Release, India] [India’s INDC] [UNFCCC Press Release, Belize] [Belize’s INDC] [UNFCCC Press Release, Botswana] [Botswana’s INDC] [UNFCCC Press Release, Sierra Leone]